Global Terrestrial Reference Frames

[Realization of the ITRS at DGFI-TUM]

The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) is the fundamental terrestrial reference system and serves as the basis for describing the figure of the Earth and for referencing processes at the Earth's surface, in the Earth's immediate space environment, and in the Earth's interior. The ITRS is realized by positions and velocities of more than 1700 globally distributed geodetic observing stations. Station positions and velocities are derived from a combination of the space-geodetic techniques Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSS, e.g., GPS and GLONASS), and the Doppler measurement system DORIS (see Figure). Each of the techniques offers individual strengths in terms of determining geodetic parameters - in particular the parameters of the geodetic datum (origin, orientation, and scale of the reference frame). By combining the different techniques, teir potentials cn be optimally exploited.

The calculation of the reference frame is performed as shown in the flowchart. In a first step, the time series of normal equation systems of the individual techniques are analyzed and combined into one normal equation system per technique (intra-technique combination). In a second step, the normal equation systems of the different techniques are combined (inter-technique combination).

In its role as an ITRS Combination Centre within the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), DGFI-TUM has taken responsibility for the continuous realization of the ITRS with best possible accuracy and long-term stability. DGFI-TUM's latest realization of the ITRS is the DTRF2014.

The main goal of DGFI-TUM's research activities in this context is to further develop the global reference frame by improving its accuracy, stability, timeliness and consistency. In particular, DGFI-TUM investigates the potential and optimal strategy for the consistent realization of the terrestrial and celestial reference system according to Resolution 3 (2011) of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) as well as the integration of geometry and gravity in the sense of GGOS.

Related projects

Related data products

Selected Publications

Seitz M., Bloßfeld M., Angermann D., Seitz F.: DTRF2014: DGFI-TUM’s ITRS realization 2014. Advances in Space Research, 10.1016/j.asr.2021.12.037, 2021
Dill R., Dobslaw H., Hellmers H., Kehm A., Bloßfeld M., Thomas M., Seitz F., Thaller D., Hugentobler U., Schönemann E.: Evaluating Processing Choices for the Geodetic Estimation of Earth Orientation Parameters with Numerical Models of Global Geophysical Fluids. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 125(9), 10.1029/2020JB020025, 2020 (Open Access)
Angermann D., Bloßfeld M., Seitz M., Rudenko S.: Comparison of latest ITRS realizations: ITRF2014, DTRF2014 and JTRF2014. In: Altamimi Z., Dick W. R. (Eds.), IERS Technical Note No. 40, 2020
Bloßfeld M., Seitz M., Angermann D., Seitz F.: DTRF2014: DGFI-TUM realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS). In: Altamimi Z., Dick W. R. (Eds.), IERS Technical Note No. 40, 2020
Bloßfeld M., Angermann D., Seitz M.: DGFI-TUM analysis and scale investigations of the latest Terrestrial Reference Frame realizations. In: Freymueller J. T., Sánchez L. (Eds.), International Symposium on Advancing Geodesy in a Changing World, 10.1007/1345_2018_47, 2018
Rudenko S., Bloßfeld M., Müller H., Dettmering D., Angermann D., Seitz M.: Evaluation of DTRF2014, ITRF2014, and JTRF2014 by Precise Orbit Determination of SLR Satellites. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 56(6), 3148 - 3158, 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2793358, 2018
Bloßfeld M., Seitz M., Angermann D.: Epoch reference frames as short-term realizations of the ITRS - datum stability versus sampling. In: Rizos C., Willis P. (Eds.) IAG 150 Years, IAG Symposia, 143, 26-32, 10.1007/1345_2015_91, 2016
Bloßfeld M., Seitz M., Angermann D., Moreaux G.: Quality assessment of IDS contribution to ITRF2014 performed by DGFI-TUM. Advances in Space Research, 58(12), 2505-2519, 10.1016/j.asr.2015.12.016, 2016
Seitz M., Angermann D., Bloßfeld M.: Geometrische Referenzsysteme. In: Freeden W., Rummel R. (Eds.), Handbuch der Geodäsie, 10.1007/978-3-662-46900-2_17-1, 2016
Seitz M., Bloßfeld M., Angermann D., Schmid R., Gerstl M., Seitz F.: The new DGFI-TUM realization of the ITRS: DTRF2014 (data). Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut, Munich, 10.1594/PANGAEA.864046, 2016 (Open Access)
Seitz M., Angermann D., Gerstl M., Bloßfeld M., Sánchez L., Seitz F.: Geometrical Reference Systems. In: Freeden W., Nashed M.Z., Sonar T. (Eds.) Handbook of Geomathematics (Second Edition), Springer, pp 2995-3034, 2995-3034, 10.1007/978-3-642-54551-1_79, 2015
Angermann D., Seitz M., Drewes H.: Global terrestrial reference systems and their realizations. In: Xu G. (Ed.) Sciences of Geodesy II - Innovations and Future Developments, 97-132, Springer, 10.1007/978-3-642-28000-9_3, 2013
Seitz M., Angermann D., Bloßfeld M., Drewes H., Gerstl M.: The 2008 DGFI realization of the ITRS: DTRF2008. Journal of Geodesy, 86(12), 1097-1123, 10.1007/s00190-012-0567-2, 2012

Find more topics on the central web site of the Technical University of Munich: